Ultrasonic equipment used in R&D laboratories – Ultrasonic probe: (a) Vibra-Cell VCX750 ultrasound probe with an ultrasonic generator/processor by Sonics & Materials Inc., f
= 20 kHz, Net Power Output = 750 W; (b) Vibra-Cell VCX130 ultrasound probe with an ultrasonic generator/processor and a series of detachable micro-tips by Sonics & Materials Inc. f
= 20 kHz, Net Power Output = 130 W; (b) Ultrasonic baths: (c) QS12 by Ultrawave, f
= 32-38 kHz, Ultrasonic Power = 200 W; Heating Power = 300 W); (d) 475H Sonomatic Ultrasonic Cleaner by Langford Ultrasonics, f
= 40 kHz, High Frequency Peak Power = 300 W; Heating Power = 200 W; (e) XUB18 by Grant Instruments, f
= 32-38 kHz, Ultrasonic Power = 300 W; Heating Power = 450 W)
Ultrasonic probes (a) type of probes used e.g. stepped, linear taper and exponentional taper shape; (b)/(c) Sonics & Materials Inc. detachable/replaceable sonic horns (stepped microtips and probes) of various lengths; (d) Sonics & Materials Inc. replaceable tips fabricated from titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V (and autoclavable); (e) example of an eroded replaceable tip after many hours of operation.